Biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel offer a cleaner energy alternative to fossil fuels. Derived from plants, biofuels are renewable and release fewer pollutants and greenhouse gases, including CO2, into the atmosphere. But activating the chemical processes necessary to convert biomass or plant-based materials into liquid fuels that can be used to power cars and other machinery, requires large amounts of energy. The extraction process often requires as much or more energy than it produces, offsetting some of its green energy benefits. To improve the efficiency of biofuel processing, Georgia Tech researchers are developing membrane-based catalysts that can efficiently convert biomass material, water, and carbon dioxide with little or no heat energy into ready-to-use liquid fuels. Unlike with fossil fuels, these renewable resources can be used to generate energy on demand, with little or no net contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions.